References

  1. Bigos SJ et al: Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline No 14, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Publication No. 95-0642, Public Health Service, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, December, 1994
  2. Daffner, SD; Hymanson, HJ; Wang, JC. Cost and use of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation before surgical discectomy. SPINE JOURNAL 2010; 10 (6): 463-468
  3. Simotas AC: Non operative treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical and outcome results and a 3 year survivorship analysis. Spine 2000;25(2)
  4. McCullogh: Spine 21(24S)
  5. Atlas S, Keller RB, Wu YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE: Long Term Outcomes Of Surgical And Non Surgical Management Of Sciatica Secondary To Lumbar Disc Herniation: 10 Year Results From The Maine Lumbar Spine Study. Spine 2005; 30(8)
  6. Atlas SJ, Keller RB, Su YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE.Long Term Outcomes Of Surgical And Non-surgical Management Of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: 8 To 10 Year Results From The Maine Lumbar Spine Study. Spine 2005; 30(8)
  7. Murphy, DR; Hurwitz, EL; Gregory, AA; Clary, R. A non-surgical approach to the management of lumbar spinal stenosis: A prospective observational cohort study. BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS 2006; 7:NIL_1-NIL_8
  8. Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Gatterman MI, Lantz C, Schneider MJ: Chiropractic Technique Procedures For Specific Low Back Conditions: Characterizing The Literature. J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2001;24(6):407-11
  9. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  10. Mootz R, Waldorf T: Chiropractic care parameters for common industrial low back conditions. Chiropractic Technique 1995; 5(3):119-125
  11. Gudavalli R in Cox JM: Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis, Treatment, 6th edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999, Appendix B
  1. Gudavalli R, Cambron J, Mcgregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M, Ghanayem A, Patwardhan A: A Randomized Clinical Trial and Subgroup Analysis to Compare Flexion - Distraction with Active Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain.  European Spine Journal 2006; 15(7):1070-1082
  2. Crawford MC: Chiropractic management of acute low back pain. Alternative Ther Health Med 1999; 5(1):112
  3. Cox JM, Hazen LJ, Mungovan M: Distraction manipulation reduction of an L5-S1 disk herniation. J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 16(5): 342-346

References for Spinal Stenosis Relief with Cox Technic

  1. Chou R et al: Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society.  SPINE 2009; 34 (10)
  2. Gudavalli MR, Cox JM, Baker JA, Cramer GD, Patwardhan AG: Intervertebral Disc Pressure Changes During a Chiropractic Procedure. Abstract from the Proceedings of the Bioengineering Conference, Phoenix
  3. Kruse RA, Gregerson D: Cervical Spinal stenosis resulting in radiculopathy treated with flexion-distraction manipulation: A case study. J of  the Neuromusculoskeletal System  2002;10(4):141-7 
  4. Snow G: Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spinal stenosis. JMPT 2001; 24(4): 300-304
  5. DuPriest CM:  Nonoperative management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1993;16(6):411-4
  6. Gudavalli S, Kruse R: Foraminal stenosis with radiculopathy from a cervical disc herniation in a 33-year-old man treated with flexion-distraction decompression manipulation. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2008; 31(5):376-380

References for Back Pain Specialist

  1. Deis N, Findlay J: Appropriateness of lumbar spine referrals to a neurosurgical service. Can J Neurol Sci. 2010 Nov;37(6):843-8.
  2. Carey T et al: Care-seeking among individuals with chronic low back pain. Spine 1995; 20(3):312-7 
  3. deLuigi A, Fitzpatrick K: Physical Examination in radiculopathy. Phys Med and Rehabil of N Amer 2011; 22(1):7-40 
  1. Sackett, D.L. et al. (1996), Evidence based medicine: What it is and What it isn't. BMJ 312(7023), 13 January, 71-72  as quote by the American Chiropractic Association
  2. Boudreau, LA; Busse, JW; McBride, G . Chiropractic services in the Canadian Armed Forces: A pilot project. MILITARY MEDICINE 171 (6). JUN 2006. p.572-576
  3. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, Hedecker D et al: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Flexion Distraction with an Exercise Program for Chronic Low-Back Pain. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006; 12(7): 659-668
  4. Gudavalli R, Cambron JA, McGregor M et al: A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 2006; 15: 1070-1082

References for Cox Technic - Non-Surgical Spinal Decompression

  1. Gudavalli R in Cox JM: Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis, Treatment, 6th edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999, Appendix B
  2. Gudavalli R, Cambron JA, McGregor M et al: A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 2006; 15: 1070-1082
  3. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, Hedecker D et al: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Flexion Distraction with an Exercise Program for Chronic Low-Back Pain. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006; 12(7): 659-668
  4. Gudavalli MR, Cox JM, Baker JA, Cramer GD, Patwardhan AG: Intervertebral Disc Pressure Changes During a Chiropractic Procedure. Abstract from the Proceedings of the Bioengineering Conference, Phoenix
  5. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  6. Gudavalli R, Cambron J, Mcgregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M, Ghanayem A, Patwardhan A: A Randomized Clinical Trial and Subgroup Analysis to Compare Flexion - Distraction with Active Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain.  European Spine Journal 2006; 15(7):1070-1082
  7. Daffner, SD; Hymanson, HJ; Wang, JC. Cost and use of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation before surgical discectomy. SPINE JOURNAL 2010; 10 (6): 463-468

References for Flexion Distraction

  1. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  2. Schliesser JS, Kruse RA, Fleming Fallon L: Cervical radiculopathy treated with chiropractic flexion distraction manipulation: a retrospective study in a private practice setting. Journal of Manipulation and Physiological Therapeutics 2003; 26(9):592-596

References for Leg Pain

  1. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  2. Gudavalli R, Cambron JA, McGregor M et al: A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 2006; 15: 1070-1082
  3. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, Hedecker D et al: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Flexion Distraction with an Exercise Program for Chronic Low-Back Pain. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006; 12(7): 659-668
References for Spinal Manipulation Is First Line of Care for Back Pain Relief
  1. Chou, R et al; Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society.  SPINE 34 (10). MAY 1 2009. 
  2. Breuer, B; Cruciani, R; Portenoy, RK. Pain Management by Primary Care Physicians, Pain Physicians, Chiropractors, and Acupuncturists: A National Survey. SOUTHERN MEDICAL JOURNAL 103 (8). AUG 2010. p.738-747
  3. Earhart, JS; Roberts, D; Roc, G; Gryzlo, S; Hsu, W: Effects of Lumbar Disk Herniation on the Careers of Professional Baseball Players. Orthopedics 35 (1). JAN 2012. p.43-49
  4. Haugen, AJ; Grovle, L; Brox, JI; Natvig, B; Keller, A; Soldal, D; Grotle, M. Estimates Of Success In Patients With Sciatica Due To Lumbar Disc Herniation Depend Upon Outcome Measure. European Spine Journal 20 (10). Oct 2011. P.1669-1675
  5. Balagué F, Piguet V, Dudler J. Steroids for LBP - from rationale to inconvenient truth. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012 Apr 11;142:0. doi: 10.4414/smw.2012.13566
  6. Pinto, RZ; Maher, CG; Ferreira, ML; Ferreira, PH; Hancock, M; Oliveira, VC; McLachlan, AJ; Koes, B. Drugs for relief of pain in patients with sciatica: systematic review and meta-analysis. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 344. FEB 13 2012. p.NIL_3-NIL_17
  7. Divrik Gökçe S, Gökçe E, Coşkun M. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations. Korean J Radiol. 2012 Mar;13(2):202-9. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
  8. Gudavalli R. et al. A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion-distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006;15(6):1070-82 

References for "Location, Location, Location...Level, Level, Level"

  1. Bell: Diagnosis of lumbar disc disease. Sem in Spine Surg 1994;6(3)
  2. Longo UG, Loppini M, Romeo G, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Errors of level in spinal surgery: An evidence-based systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012 Nov;94(11):1546-50. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.94B11.29553.

References for “50% Rule” Infographic: July 1, 2015

  • Foulongne E, Derrey S, Ould Slimane M, Levèque S, Tobenas AC, Dujardin F, Fréger P, Chassagne P, Proust F.  Lumbar spinal stenosis: Which predictive factors of favorable functional results after decompressive laminectomy? Neurochirurgie. 2012 Dec 13. pii: S0028-3770(12)
  • Haugen, AJ; Grovle, L; Brox, JI; Natvig, B; Keller, A; Soldal, D; Grotle, M. Estimates of success in patients with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation depend upon outcome measure. EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL 20 (10). OCT 2011. p.1669-1675
  • Atlas S, Keller RB, Wu YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE: LONG TERM OUTCOMES OF SURGICAL AND NON SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF SCIATICA SECONDARY TO LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION: 10 YEAR RESULTS FROM THE MAINE LUMBAR SPINE STUDY. Spine 30(8) April 15, 2005
  • Atlas SJ, Keller RB, Su YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE. LONG TERM OUTCOMES OF SURGICAL AND NONSURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL STENOSIS:  8 TO 10 YEAR RESULTS FROM THE MAINE LUMBAR SPINE STUDY. Spine 30(8). April 15, 2005
  • Cox JM, Feller J, Cox-Cid J. Distraction chiropractic adjusting: clinical application and outcomes of 1000 cases. Top Clin Chiropractic 1996;3(3):45-59
  • Cecchi F, Negrini S, Pasquini G, Paperini A, Conti AA, Chiti M, Zaina F, Macchi C, Molino-Lova R. Predictors of functional outcome in patients with chronic low back painundergoing back school, individual physiotherapy or spinal manipulation. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2012 May 8.
  • Chou, R et al; Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society.  SPINE 34 (10). MAY 1 2009. 
  • Schliesser JS, Kruse RA, Fleming Fallon L: Cervical radiculopathy treated with chiropractic flexion distraction manipulation: a retrospective study in a private practice setting. J Manipul Physiol Therap 26(9):592-596