References

  1. Bigos SJ et al: Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline No 14, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Publication No. 95-0642, Public Health Service, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, December, 1994
  2. Daffner, SD; Hymanson, HJ; Wang, JC. Cost and use of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation before surgical discectomy. SPINE JOURNAL 2010; 10 (6): 463-468
  3. Simotas AC: Non operative treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical and outcome results and a 3 year survivorship analysis. Spine 2000;25(2)
  4. McCullogh: Spine 21(24S)
  5. Atlas S, Keller RB, Wu YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE: Long Term Outcomes Of Surgical And Non Surgical Management Of Sciatica Secondary To Lumbar Disc Herniation: 10 Year Results From The Maine Lumbar Spine Study. Spine 2005; 30(8)
  6. Atlas SJ, Keller RB, Su YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE.Long Term Outcomes Of Surgical And Non-surgical Management Of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: 8 To 10 Year Results From The Maine Lumbar Spine Study. Spine 2005; 30(8)
  7. Murphy, DR; Hurwitz, EL; Gregory, AA; Clary, R. A non-surgical approach to the management of lumbar spinal stenosis: A prospective observational cohort study. BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS 2006; 7:NIL_1-NIL_8
  8. Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Gatterman MI, Lantz C, Schneider MJ: Chiropractic Technique Procedures For Specific Low Back Conditions: Characterizing The Literature. J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2001;24(6):407-11
  9. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  10. Mootz R, Waldorf T: Chiropractic care parameters for common industrial low back conditions. Chiropractic Technique 1995; 5(3):119-125
  11. Gudavalli R in Cox JM: Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis, Treatment, 6th edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999, Appendix B
  1. Gudavalli R, Cambron J, Mcgregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M, Ghanayem A, Patwardhan A: A Randomized Clinical Trial and Subgroup Analysis to Compare Flexion - Distraction with Active Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain.  European Spine Journal 2006; 15(7):1070-1082
  2. Crawford MC: Chiropractic management of acute low back pain. Alternative Ther Health Med 1999; 5(1):112
  3. Cox JM, Hazen LJ, Mungovan M: Distraction manipulation reduction of an L5-S1 disk herniation. J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 16(5): 342-346

References for Spinal Stenosis Relief with Cox Technic

  1. Chou R et al: Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society.  SPINE 2009; 34 (10)
  2. Gudavalli MR, Cox JM, Baker JA, Cramer GD, Patwardhan AG: Intervertebral Disc Pressure Changes During a Chiropractic Procedure. Abstract from the Proceedings of the Bioengineering Conference, Phoenix
  3. Kruse RA, Gregerson D: Cervical Spinal stenosis resulting in radiculopathy treated with flexion-distraction manipulation: A case study. J of  the Neuromusculoskeletal System  2002;10(4):141-7 
  4. Snow G: Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spinal stenosis. JMPT 2001; 24(4): 300-304
  5. DuPriest CM:  Nonoperative management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1993;16(6):411-4
  6. Gudavalli S, Kruse R: Foraminal stenosis with radiculopathy from a cervical disc herniation in a 33-year-old man treated with flexion-distraction decompression manipulation. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2008; 31(5):376-380

References for Back Pain Specialist

  1. Deis N, Findlay J: Appropriateness of lumbar spine referrals to a neurosurgical service. Can J Neurol Sci. 2010 Nov;37(6):843-8.
  2. Carey T et al: Care-seeking among individuals with chronic low back pain. Spine 1995; 20(3):312-7 
  3. deLuigi A, Fitzpatrick K: Physical Examination in radiculopathy. Phys Med and Rehabil of N Amer 2011; 22(1):7-40 
  1. Sackett, D.L. et al. (1996), Evidence based medicine: What it is and What it isn't. BMJ 312(7023), 13 January, 71-72  as quote by the American Chiropractic Association
  2. Boudreau, LA; Busse, JW; McBride, G . Chiropractic services in the Canadian Armed Forces: A pilot project. MILITARY MEDICINE 171 (6). JUN 2006. p.572-576
  3. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, Hedecker D et al: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Flexion Distraction with an Exercise Program for Chronic Low-Back Pain. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006; 12(7): 659-668
  4. Gudavalli R, Cambron JA, McGregor M et al: A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 2006; 15: 1070-1082

References for Cox Technic - Non-Surgical Spinal Decompression

  1. Gudavalli R in Cox JM: Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis, Treatment, 6th edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999, Appendix B
  2. Gudavalli R, Cambron JA, McGregor M et al: A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 2006; 15: 1070-1082
  3. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, Hedecker D et al: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Flexion Distraction with an Exercise Program for Chronic Low-Back Pain. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006; 12(7): 659-668
  4. Gudavalli MR, Cox JM, Baker JA, Cramer GD, Patwardhan AG: Intervertebral Disc Pressure Changes During a Chiropractic Procedure. Abstract from the Proceedings of the Bioengineering Conference, Phoenix
  5. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  6. Gudavalli R, Cambron J, Mcgregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M, Ghanayem A, Patwardhan A: A Randomized Clinical Trial and Subgroup Analysis to Compare Flexion - Distraction with Active Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain.  European Spine Journal 2006; 15(7):1070-1082
  7. Daffner, SD; Hymanson, HJ; Wang, JC. Cost and use of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation before surgical discectomy. SPINE JOURNAL 2010; 10 (6): 463-468

References for Flexion Distraction

  1. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  2. Schliesser JS, Kruse RA, Fleming Fallon L: Cervical radiculopathy treated with chiropractic flexion distraction manipulation: a retrospective study in a private practice setting. Journal of Manipulation and Physiological Therapeutics 2003; 26(9):592-596

References for Leg Pain

  1. Cox et al: Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; 3(3):45-54, 79-81
  2. Gudavalli R, Cambron JA, McGregor M et al: A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 2006; 15: 1070-1082
  3. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, Hedecker D et al: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Flexion Distraction with an Exercise Program for Chronic Low-Back Pain. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006; 12(7): 659-668
References for Spinal Manipulation Is First Line of Care for Back Pain Relief
  1. Chou, R et al; Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society.  SPINE 34 (10). MAY 1 2009. 
  2. Breuer, B; Cruciani, R; Portenoy, RK. Pain Management by Primary Care Physicians, Pain Physicians, Chiropractors, and Acupuncturists: A National Survey. SOUTHERN MEDICAL JOURNAL 103 (8). AUG 2010. p.738-747
  3. Earhart, JS; Roberts, D; Roc, G; Gryzlo, S; Hsu, W: Effects of Lumbar Disk Herniation on the Careers of Professional Baseball Players. Orthopedics 35 (1). JAN 2012. p.43-49
  4. Haugen, AJ; Grovle, L; Brox, JI; Natvig, B; Keller, A; Soldal, D; Grotle, M. Estimates Of Success In Patients With Sciatica Due To Lumbar Disc Herniation Depend Upon Outcome Measure. European Spine Journal 20 (10). Oct 2011. P.1669-1675
  5. Balagué F, Piguet V, Dudler J. Steroids for LBP - from rationale to inconvenient truth. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012 Apr 11;142:0. doi: 10.4414/smw.2012.13566
  6. Pinto, RZ; Maher, CG; Ferreira, ML; Ferreira, PH; Hancock, M; Oliveira, VC; McLachlan, AJ; Koes, B. Drugs for relief of pain in patients with sciatica: systematic review and meta-analysis. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 344. FEB 13 2012. p.NIL_3-NIL_17
  7. Divrik Gökçe S, Gökçe E, Coşkun M. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations. Korean J Radiol. 2012 Mar;13(2):202-9. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
  8. Gudavalli R. et al. A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion-distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006;15(6):1070-82 

References for "Location, Location, Location...Level, Level, Level"

  1. Bell: Diagnosis of lumbar disc disease. Sem in Spine Surg 1994;6(3)
  2. Longo UG, Loppini M, Romeo G, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Errors of level in spinal surgery: An evidence-based systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012 Nov;94(11):1546-50. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.94B11.29553.

References for “50% Rule” Infographic: July 1, 2015

 

  • Foulongne E, Derrey S, Ould Slimane M, Levèque S, Tobenas AC, Dujardin F, Fréger P, Chassagne P, Proust F.  Lumbar spinal stenosis: Which predictive factors of favorable functional results after decompressive laminectomy? Neurochirurgie. 2012 Dec 13. pii: S0028-3770(12)
  • Haugen, AJ; Grovle, L; Brox, JI; Natvig, B; Keller, A; Soldal, D; Grotle, M. Estimates of success in patients with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation depend upon outcome measure. EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL 20 (10). OCT 2011. p.1669-1675
  • Atlas S, Keller RB, Wu YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE: LONG TERM OUTCOMES OF SURGICAL AND NON SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF SCIATICA SECONDARY TO LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION: 10 YEAR RESULTS FROM THE MAINE LUMBAR SPINE STUDY. Spine 30(8) April 15, 2005
  • Atlas SJ, Keller RB, Su YA, Deyo RA, Singer DE. LONG TERM OUTCOMES OF SURGICAL AND NONSURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL STENOSIS:  8 TO 10 YEAR RESULTS FROM THE MAINE LUMBAR SPINE STUDY. Spine 30(8). April 15, 2005
  • Cox JM, Feller J, Cox-Cid J. Distraction chiropractic adjusting: clinical application and outcomes of 1000 cases. Top Clin Chiropractic 1996;3(3):45-59
  • Cecchi F, Negrini S, Pasquini G, Paperini A, Conti AA, Chiti M, Zaina F, Macchi C, Molino-Lova R. Predictors of functional outcome in patients with chronic low back painundergoing back school, individual physiotherapy or spinal manipulation. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2012 May 8.
  • Chou, R et al; Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society.  SPINE 34 (10). MAY 1 2009. 
  • Schliesser JS, Kruse RA, Fleming Fallon L: Cervical radiculopathy treated with chiropractic flexion distraction manipulation: a retrospective study in a private practice setting. J Manipul Physiol Therap 26(9):592-596

References for Pepper and Turmeric and Curcumin

 

 

  1. D'Souza SP, Chavannavar SV, Kanchanashri B, Niveditha SB. Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Spices and Condiments as Alternative Antimicrobial Remedy. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jan 1:2156587217703214. doi: 10.1177/2156587217703214. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. “Amazing health benefits of black pepper and turmeric.” https://www.turmericforhealth.com/turmeric-benefits/health-benefits-of-black-pepper-and-turmeric . Sourced on 5/2/17.
  3. Zheng J, Zhou Y, Li Y, Xu DP, Li S, Li HB. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers. Nutrients. 2016 Aug 12;8(8). pii: E495. doi: 10.3390/nu8080495.
  4. Meghwal M1, Goswami TK. Piper nigrum and piperine: an update. Phytother Res. 2013 Aug;27(8):1121-30. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4972. Epub 2013 Apr 29.
  5. Prasad S, Tyagi A, Aggarwal B: Recent Developments in Delivery, Bioavailability, Absorption and Metabolism of Curcumin: the Golden Pigment from Golden Spice.  Cancer Res Treat. 2014 Jan; 46(1): 2–18. 

References for Absorbability of Chondroitin Sulfate

 

  1. Conte, A; Palmieri, L; Segnini, D; Ronca, G (1991). "Metabolic fate of partially depolymerized chondroitin sulfate administered to the rat." Drugs Exp Clin Res. 17: 27–33.
  2. Conte, A; de Bernardi, M; Palmieri, L; Lualdi, P; Mautone, G; Ronca, G (1991). "Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man." Arzneimittelforschung. 41: 768–72.
  3. Conte, A; Volpi, N; Palmieri, L; Bahous, I; Ronca, G (1995). "Biochemical and pharmacokinetic aspects of oral treatment with chondroitin sulfate." Arzneimittelforschung. 45: 918–25.
  4. Palmieri L, Conte A, Giovannini L, Lualdi P, Ronca G. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in the experimental animal." Arzneimittelforschung 1990;40:319-23.
  5. Ronca F, Palmieri L, Panicucci P, Ronca G. "Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate." Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6 Suppl A:14-21.
  6. Barthe L, Woodley J, Lavit M, Przybylski C, Philibert C, Houin G. In vitro intestinal degradation and absorption of chondroitin sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan drug. Arzneimittelforschung. 2004;54(5):286-92. https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0031-1296972
  7. Volpi N. Oral absorption and bioavailability of ichthyic origin chondroitin sulfate in healthy male volunteers. Osteoarhritis and Cartilage 2003;11(6):433-441 http://www.oarsijournal.com/article/S1063-4584(03)00051-7/fulltext#Disaccharide composition of plasma ichthyic CS after its oral administration
  8. Volpi, N. Oral bioavailability of chondroitin sulfate(Condrosulf®) and its constituents in healthy male volunteers. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002; 10: 768–777
  9. Pescador, R., Diamantini, G., Mantovani, M., Malandrino, S., Riva, A., Casu, B. et al. Absorption by the rat intestinal tract of fluorescein-labelled pig duodenal glycosaminoglycans. Arzneimittelforschung. 1980; 30: 1893–1896
  10. Larsen, A.K., Lund, D.P., Langer, R., and Folkman, J. Oral heparin results in the appearance of heparin fragments in the plasma of rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1986; 83: 2964–2968
  11. Palmieri, L., Conte, A., Giovannini, L., Lualdi, P., and Ronca, G. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in the experimental animal. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990; 40: 319–323
  12. Dawes, J., Hodson, B.A., and Pepper, D.S. The absorption, clearance and metabolic fate of dermatan sulphate administered to man-studies using a radioiodinated derivative. Thromb Haemost. 1989; 62: 945–949
  13. Crepaldi, G., Rossi, A., Coscetti, G., Abbruzzese, E., Calveri, U., and Calabrò, A. Sulodexide oral administration influences blood viscosity and fibrinolysis. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992; 18: 189–195
  14. Dawes, J., McLaren, M., Forbes, C., Belch, J.J.F., Lane, D.A., Bray, B. et al. The pharmacokinetics of dermatan sulphate MF701 in healthy human volunteers. Br J Clin Pharm. 1991; 32: 361–366
  15. Adebowale A, Du J, Liang Z, Leslie JL, Eddington ND. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of glucosamine hydrochloride and low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate after single and multiple doses to beagle dogs. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2002 Sep;23(6):217-25.
  16. Welburn M: Shotgun approach may quell arthritis, rheumatism, and back pain. Arthritis Research. 1994 Sept. 15-22 

References for More Curcumin

  1. Sanivarapu R, Vallabhaneni V, Verma V. The Potential of Curcumin in Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury. Neurol Res Int. 2016;2016:9468193. doi: 10.1155/2016/9468193. Epub 2016 May 19.
  2. Subash C. Gupta, Sridevi Patchva, and Bharat B. Aggarwal. Therapeutic Roles of Curcumin: Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials. AAPS J. 2013 Jan; 15(1): 195–218.  Published online 2012 Nov 10. doi:  10.1208/s12248-012-9432-8
  3. Riva A, Togni S, Giacomelli L, Franceschi F, Eggenhoffner R, Feragalli B, Belcaro G, Cacchio M, Shu H, Dugall M: Effects Of A Curcumin-Based Supplementation In Asymptomatic Subjects With Low Bone Density: A Preliminary 24-Week Supplement Study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017;21(7):1684-1689
  4. Ma J, Yu H, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang Q, Xiang L. Curcumin promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetic rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015 Nov 6. pii: S0304-3940(15)30242-1. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.11.005.
  5. Chandran B, Goel A. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res. 2012;26(11):1719–25. doi:10.1002/ptr.4639
  6. Deodhar SD, Sethi R, Srimal RC. Preliminary study on anti-rheumatic activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) Indian J Med Res. 1980;71:632–634.
  7. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Grossi MG, et al. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva(R), a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):55–62.
  8. Ringman JM, Frautschy SA, Cole GM, Masterman DL, Cummings JL. A potential role of the curry spice curcumin in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2005;2(2):131–136. doi: 10.2174/1567205053585882.
  9. Soni KB, Kuttan R. Effect of oral curcumin administration on serum peroxides and cholesterol levels in human volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992;36(4):273–275
  10. Chin KY. The spice for joint inflammation: anti-inflammatory role of curcumin in treating osteoarthritis. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016 Sep 20;10:3029-3042. eCollection 2016.

References for Cox® Technic Flexion Distraction (FD) Spinal Manipulation in the Peer-Reviewed Literature:

 

  1. Cox JM:  Pedicogenic stenosis:  Its Manipulative Implications.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1979
  2. Bergmann T: Manual force, mechanically assisted articular chiropractic techniques using long and/or short lever contacts. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1993; 16(1):33-37
  3. Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Gatterman MI, Lantz C, Schneider MJ: Chiropractic technique procedures for specific low back conditions: Characterizing the literature. Journal Of Manipulative And Physiological Therapeutics   2001;24(6):407-11
  4. Ndetan, H, Rupert R, Bae S, Singh, K: Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by students while attending a chiropractic college. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2009;32(2):140-48
  5. Cox JM, Fromelt KA, Shreiner S:  Chiropractic statistical survey of 100 consecutive low back pain patients.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1983;6(3):117-128 1983
  6. Cox JM, Shreiner S:  Chiropractic Manipulation In Low Back Pain And Sciatica:  Statistical Data On The Diagnosis, Treatment, And Response Of 576 Consecutive Cases.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1984;7(1): 1-11
  7. Cox JM, Feller, J: Chiropractic Treatment Of Low Back Pain: A Multi-Center Descriptive Analysis Of Presentation And Outcome In 424 Consecutive Cases. Journal of Neuromusculoskeletal Systems 1994; 2(4):178-190
  8. Cox, JM, Feller JA, Cox JA: Distraction Chiropractic Adjusting: Clinical Application, Treatment Algorithms, and Clinical Outcomes of 1000 Cases Studied. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996; (3)3:45-59, 79-81
  9. Cox JM:  Lumbosacral disc protrusion:  a case report.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1985;8(4): 261-266
  10. Cox JM, Aspegren DD: A hypothesis introducing a new calculation for discal reduction: emphasis on stenotic factors and manipulative treatment. J of Manipulative And Physiological Therapeutics 1987; 10(6):287-294
  11. Cox JM, Trier K: Chiropractic adjustment results correlated with spondylolisthesis instability. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1991;6:67-72
  12. Cox JM, Trier K: Chiropractic adjustment results correlated with spondylolisthesis instability. J of Manual Medicine 1991;6:67-72
  13. Dunn AS, Baylis S, Ryan D. Chiropractic management of mechanical low back pain secondary to multiple-level lumbar spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis in a United States Marine Corps veteran: a case report. J Chiropr Med. 2009 Sep;8(3):125-30
  14. Cox JM, Hazen LJ, Mungovan M:  Distraction manipulation reduction of an L5-S1 disc herniation. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1993; 16(5):342-346
  15. Neault CC: Conservative management of an L4-L5 left nuclear disc prolapse with a sequestrated segment. J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1992;15(5):318-321
  16. Snow G: Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spinal stenosis. JMPT   2001; 24(4): 300-304
  17. Bergmann TF, Jongeward BV: Manipulative therapy in lower back pain with leg pain and neurological deficit. J Of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1998; 21(4):288-294
  18. Guadagnino MR: Flexion-distraction manipulation of a patient with a proven disc herniation. J Of The Neuromusculoskeletal System 1997; 5(2):70-73
  19. Kruse R, Gudavalli S, Cambron J: Chiropractic treatment of a pregnant patient with lumbar radiculopathy. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 2007; 6(4):153-158
  20. Greenwood D: Improvement in chronic low back pain in an aviation crash survivor with adjacent segment disease following flexion distraction therapy: a case study. J of Chiropractic Medicine 2012; 11(4):300-305
  21. Hazen LJ, Cox, JM:  Lumbar intraspinal extradural synovial cyst: a case study. J of  Neuromusculoskeletal System 1993; 1(4):167-169
  22. Cox JM, Cox II, JM: Chiropractic Treatment of Lumbar Spine Synovial Cysts: A Report of Two Cases. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2005; 28(2):143-147
  23. Cox JM: Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spine pain due to a synovial cyst: a case report. J of Chiropractic Medicine 2012; 11(1):7-15
  24. Hawk C, Long C, Azad A: Chiropractic care for women with chronic pelvic pain: a prospective single-group intervention study. JMPT 1997;20(2):73-9
  25. Browning JE: The mechanically induced pelvic pain and organic dysfunction syndrome: an often overlooked cause of bladder, bowel, gynecologic, and sexual dysfunction. J of the Neuromusculoskeletal System 1996;4(2):52-66
  26. Rowell RM, Rylander SJ. Low-Back Pain, Leg Pain, and Chronic Idiopathic Testicular Pain Treated with Chiropractic Care. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print] 18(4): 420-422
  27. Cox JM: Distraction manipulation: a review of the literature. J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2006; 29(1): 89-90
  28. Cox JM et al: Grand Rounds Discussion: Patient with acute low back pain. Chiropractic Technique 1999; 11(1):1-17
  29. Crawford MC: Chiropractic management of acute low back pain. Alternative Th H 1999; 5(1):112
  30. Fersum, KV; Dankaerts, W; O'Sullivan, PB; Maes, J; Skouen, JS; Bjordal, JM; Kvale, A. Integration of subclassification strategies in randomised controlled clinical trials evaluating manual therapy treatment and exercise therapy for non-specific chronic low back pain: a systematic review. British Journal Of Sports Medicine 44 (14). Nov 2010. P.1054-1062
  31. Beira B, Peers A: A study of the effects of chiropractic therapy on the diameter of the spinal canal in patients with low back pain and radiculopathy. J Of The Neuromusculoskeletal System 1998; 6(3):114-126
  32. BenEliyahu DJ: Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical follow-up: study of 27 patients receiving chiropractic care for cervical and lumbar disc herniations. Journal Of Manipulative And Physiological Therapeutics   1996; 19(9):597-606
  33. Bulbulian R, Burke J, Dishman JD : Spinal reflex excitability changes after lumbar spine passive flexion mobilization. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2002; 25(8):526-532
  34. Hope, M: The effect of flexion distraction therapy on the lumbar spine on the electromyographic effect of the erector spinae muscles in lumbar facet dysfunction patients. University of Johannesburg Chiropractic Clinic. Published 6-30-11 (https://ujdigispace.uj.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10210/3765/Hope.pdf?sequence=1)
  35. Gudavalli M R, Cox JM, Baker JM, Cramer GD, Patwardhan AG: Intervertebral disc pressure changes during the flexion-distraction procedure for low back pain. International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine.  Annual meeting June, 1997
  36. Gudavalli RM: Biomechanics Research on Flexion-Distraction Procedure In Cox JM: Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis, Treatment 7th ed. 2011, pages 212-225
  37. Gudavalli MR: Estimation of dimensional changes in the lumbar intervertebral foramen of lumbar spine during flexion distraction procedure. Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. June 10-11, 1994, Palm Springs, CA, p81
  38. MR Gudavalli. Dimensional Changes in the Lumbar Intervertebral Foramen Under Combined Loads of Flexion and Traction - ASME-PUBLICATIONS-BED, 1994 - American Society Of Mechanical Engineers
  39. Gudavalli R, Cambron JA, McGregor M et al: A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 2006; 15: 1070-1082
  40. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, McGregor M et al: Amount of health care and self-care following a randomized clinical trial comparing flexion-distraction with exercise program for chronic low back pain. Osteopathy and Chiropractic 2006; 14:19
  41. Cambron GA, Gudavalli MR, Hedecker D et al: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Flexion Distraction with an Exercise Program for Chronic Low-Back Pain. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006; 12(7): 659-668
  42. Murphy, DR; Hurwitz, EL; Gregory, AA; Clary, R. A non-surgical approach to the management of lumbar spinal stenosis: A prospective observational cohort study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006; 7:NIL_1-NIL_8
  43. Dougherty P, Bajwa S, Burke J, Dishman JD: Spinal Manipulation Postepidural Injection for Lumbar and Cervical Radiculopathy: A Retrospective Case Series. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2004;27(7):449-456
  44. Gudavalli R, Potluri T, Caranandang G, Havey R, Vornov L, Cox J, Rowell R , Kruse R, Joachim G, Patwardhan A, Henderson, Goertz:  Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric  Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 954134, 10 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/954134
  45. Gudavalli MR, Cox JM: Real-time force feedback during flexion-distraction procedure for low back pain: A pilot study. J Can Chiropr Assoc 2014; 58(2):193-197
  46. Gudavalli MR, Salsbury SA, Vining RD, Long CR, Corber L, Patwardhan AG, Goertz CM. Development of an attention-touch control for manual cervical distraction: a pilot randomized clinical trial for patients with neck pain. Trials. 2015 Jun 5;16(1):259. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0770-6
  47. Gudavalli M et al. Clinician proficiency in delivering manual treatment for neck pain within specified force ranges. The Spine Journal 2015; 15(4): 570–6
  48. Gudavalli MR, Vining RD, Salsbury SA, Goertz CM. Training and certification of doctors of chiropractic in delivering manual cervical traction forces: Results of a longitudinal observational study. J Chiropr Educ. 2014 Sep 19.
  49. Kruse RA, Schliesser J, DeBono VF: Klippel-Feil Syndrome with radiculopathy. Chiropractic management utilizing flexion-distraction technique: A case report. J of  the Neuromusculoskeletal System 2000;8(4):124-31
  50. Kruse RA, Gregerson D: Cervical Spinal stenosis resulting in radiculopathy treated with flexion-distraction manipulation: A case study. J of the Neuromusculoskeletal System  2002;10(4):141-7
  51. Kruse RA, Imbarlina F, DeBono VF: Treatment of cervical radiculopathy with flexion distraction. J Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics 2001;24(3):206-209
  52. Schliesser JS, Kruse RA, Fleming Fallon L: Cervical radiculopathy treated with chiropractic flexion distraction manipulation: a retrospective study in a private practice setting: JMPT 2003; 26(9):592-596
  53. Gudavalli S, Kruse R: Foraminal stenosis with radiculopathy from a cervical disc herniation in a 33-year-old man treated with flexion-distraction decompression manipulation. JMPT  2008; 31(5):376-380
  54. Manison A: Chiropractic management using Cox cervical flexion-distraction technique for a disk herniation with left foraminal narrowing in a 64-year-old man. J of Chiro Med 2011; 10(4):316-321
  55. Hawk C, Azad A, Phongphua C, Long CR: Preliminary study of the effects of a placebo chiropractic treatment with sham adjustments. J of Manipulative And Physiological Therapeutics 1999;22(7):436-43
  56. Hawk C, Long CR: Use of a pilot to refine the design of a study to develop a manual placebo treatment.  JNMS 2000;8(2):39-48
  57. McGregor M, Cambron JA, Jedlicka J, Gudavalli MR. Clinical trial variability: quality control in a randomized clinical trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2009 Jan;30(1):20-3. Epub 2008 Aug 31
  58. Hondras MA, Long CR, Cao Y, Rowell RM, Meeker WC. A randomized controlled trial comparing 2 types of spinal manipulation and minimal conservative medical care for adults 55 years and older with subacute or chronic low back pain. J Manipulative and Physiol Ther 2009; 32:330-43 and 61.
  59. Cox JM: Editorial Response: A randomized controlled trial comparing 2 types of spinal manipulation and minimal conservative medical care for adults 55 years and older with subacute or chronic low back pain. J of Manipulative and Physiol Therap 2009; 32(7):601
  60. Kruse R, Cambron J: Chiropractic Management of Postsurgical Lumbar Spine Pain: A Retrospective Study of 32 Cases. J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2011; 34(6):408-412
  61. Kruse R, Cambron J: Cox decompression chiropractic manipulation of a patient with postsurgical lumbar fusion: a case report. J of Chiro Med 2011; 10(4):255-260
  62. Gudavalli MR, Olding K, Joachim G, Cox JM: Chiropractic Distraction Spinal Manipulation On Postsurgical Continued Low Back And Radicular Pain Patients:  A Retrospective Case Series. Journal Of Chiropractic Medicine 2016; 15(2):121-128 

References for 50% Rule

  1. Madson TJ1: Considerations In Physical Therapy Management Of A Non-Responding Patient With Low Back Pain. Physiother Theory Pract 2017:1-8 [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Cook C, Petersen S, Donaldson M, Wilhelm M, Learman K: Does Early Change Predict Long-Term (6 Months) Improvements In Subjects Who Receive Manual Therapy For Low Back Pain? Physiother Theory Pract 2017:1-9 [Epub ahead of print]