References for BLOG Articles


  1. Lubelski D, Williams SK, O'Rourke C, Obuchowski NA, Wang JC, Steinmetz MP, Melillo AJ, Benzel EC, Modic MT, Quencer R, Mroz TE. Differences in the Surgical Treatment of Lower Back Pain Among Spine Surgeons in the United States. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Chen PG, Daubs MD, Berven S, Raaen LB, Anderson AT, Asch SM, Nuckols TK, and the Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis Appropriateness Group. Surgery for Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis: The Development of Appropriateness Criteria. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Ward J, Humphries K, Coats J, Whitfield P. Attributes of Non-Hispanic Blacks That Use Chiropractic Health Care: A Survey of Patients in Texas and Louisiana.. J Chiropr Med. 2015 Mar;14(1):15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Mar 13.
  4. Schmiemann G, Blase L, Seeber C, Joos S, Steinhäuser J, Ernst S, Großhennig A, Hummers-Pradier E, Lingner H. Manual Therapy by General Medical Practitioners for Nonspecific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: The ManRück Study Protocol of a Clinical Trial. J Chiropr Med. 2015 Mar;14(1):39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2015.02.003. Epub 2015 Mar 13.
  5. Onifer SM, Reed WR, Sozio RS, Long CR. Antinociceptive Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Nociceptive Behavior of Adult Rats during the Formalin Test. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:520454. doi: 10.1155/2015/520454. Epub 2015 Nov 26.
  6. Aguirrebeña IL, Newham D, Critchley DJ. Mechanism of Action of Spinal Mobilizations: A Systematic Review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Jan;41(2):159-172.
  7. Millhouse PW, Schroeder GD, Kurd MF, Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR, Savage JW. Microdiscectomy for a Paracentral Lumbar Herniated Disk. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2015 Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print]
  8. Wong JJ, Shearer HM, Mior S, Jacobs C, Côté P, Randhawa K, Yu H, Southerst D, Varatharajan S, Sutton D, van der Velde G, Carroll LJ, Ameis A, Ammendolia C, Brison R, Nordin M, Stupar M, Taylor-Vaisey A. Are manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture effective for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders or neck pain and associated disorders? An update of the bone and joint decade task force on neck pain and its associated disorders by the optima collaboration. Spine J. 2015 Dec 17. pii: S1529-9430(15)01234-6. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2015.08.024. [Epub ahead of print] Spine J. 2015 Dec 17. pii: S1529-9430(15)01234-6. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2015.08.024. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Janzen K, Peters-Watral B. Treating co-occurring chronic low back pain & generalized anxiety disorder. Nurse Pract. 2015 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print]
  10. Simon CB, Lentz TA, Bishop MD, Riley JL , Fillingim RB, George SZ. Comparative Associations of Working Memory and Pain Catastrophizing With Chronic Low Back Pain Intensity. Phys Ther. 2015 Dec 23. [Epub ahead of print]
  11. Xia T, Long CR, Gudavalli MR, Wilder DG, Vining RD, Rowell RM, Reed WR, DeVocht JW, Goertz CM, Owens EF, Meeker WC. Similar Effects of Thrust and Non-Thrust Spinal Manipulation Found in Adults with Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain - A Controlled Trial with Adaptive Allocation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Dec 10. [Epub ahead of print]
  12. Globe G, Farabaugh R, Hawk C, Morris C, Baker G et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Chiropractic Care for Low Back Pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Published online January 19, 2016.
References for Cox Blog #2 - Spinal Manipulation Use Grows as Its Benefits are Experienced
  1. Espi-Lopez GV1, RODRíGUEZ-Blanco C, Oliva-Pascual-Vaca Á, Molina-Martinez FJ, Falla D. Do manual therapy techniques have a positive effect on quality of life in people with tension-type headache? A randomized controlled trial. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2016 Feb 29. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Licciardone JC, Gatchel RJ, Aryal S. Recovery From Chronic Low Back Pain After Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2016 Mar 1;116(3):144-55. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.031.
  3. King Channell M, Wang Y, McLaughlin MH, Ciesielski J, Pomerantz SC. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Older Patients: A National Survey of Osteopathic Physicians. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2016 Mar 1;116(3):136-43. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.030.
  4. Cox JM, Feller J, Cox-Cid J. Distraction chiropractic adjusting: clinical application and outcomes of 1000 cases. Top Clin Chiropractic 1996;3(3):45-59
  5. Chou, R et al; Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain.  An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society.  SPINE 34 (10). MAY 1 2009.  

References for Blog #3 - What Is Cox® Flexion Distraction Decompression Spinal Manipulation?

  1. Biomechanical Outcomes 
References for Blog #4 - References for Blog #4 - What Research Shows the Benefits Of Cox® Flexion Distraction Decompression Spinal Manipulation In Treating Spine And Extremity Pain


  1. Guehring T, Omlor GW, Lorenz H, Engelleiter K, Richter W, Carstens C, Kroeber M. Disc distraction shows evidence of regenerative potential in degenerated intervertebral discs as evaluated by protein expression, magnetic resonance imaging, and messenger ribonucleic acid expression analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jul 1;31(15):1658-65.
  2. Hee HT, Chuah YJ, Tan BH, Setiobudi T, Wong HK. Vascularization and morphological changes of the endplate after axial compression and distraction of the intervertebral disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Apr 1;36(7):505-11. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181d32410.
  3. Chung TS, Yang HE, Ahn SJ, Park JH. Herniated Lumbar Disks: Real-time MR Imaging Evaluation during Continuous Traction. Radiology. 2015 Jun;275(3):755-62. doi: 10.1148/radiol.14141400. Epub 2015 Jan 22.
  4. Kuo YW, Hsu YC, Chuang IT, Chao PH, Wang JL. Spinal traction promotes molecular transportation in a simulated degenerative intervertebral disc model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Apr 20;39(9):E550-6. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000269.

References for Blog #5 – Nutrition In Treating Disc Degeneration, Disc Herniation, And Spinal Arthritis


  1. Kuo YW, Hsu YC, Chuang IT, Chao PH, Wang JL. Spinal traction promotes molecular transportation in a simulated degenerative intervertebral disc model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Apr 20;39(9):E550-6. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000269.
  2. Zhu Q1, Gao X, Levene HB, Brown MD, Gu W. Influences of Nutrition Supply and Pathways on the Degenerative Patterns in Human Intervertebral Disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Gu W1, Zhu Q, Gao X, Brown MD. Simulation of the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration due to decreased nutritional supply. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Nov 15;39(24):E1411-7. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000560.
  4. Schleich C, Müller-Lutz A, Eichner M, Schmitt B, Matuschke F, Bittersohl B, Zilkens C, Wittsack HJ, Antoch G, Miese F. Glycosaminoglycan Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer of Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in Healthy Volunteers. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Jan;41(2):146-52. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001144.
  5. Shostak NA, Aksenova AV, Pravdiuk NG, Shemetov DA, Soldatov DG. [Pain in the lower part of the spine in spinal osteochondrosis: experience in using chondroprotective drugs]. Ter Arkh. 2002;74(8):67-9. [Article in Russian]
  6. Seleznova S1, Zabara A1, Mamuladze D1. THE CURRENT PROBLEMS OF NONSPECIFIC BACK PAIN. Georgian Med News. 2016 Jan;(250):61-6. 
  7. Mavrogonatou E1, Papadimitriou K2, Urban JP3, Papadopoulos V4, Kletsas D1. Deficiency in the α1 subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase enhances the anti-proliferative effect of high osmolality in nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells. J Cell Physiol. 2015 Dec;230(12):3037-48. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25040.